We select 241,648 papers revealed in American Physical Society Journals, 1990–2010, and analyse the chance of two-method (pairwise) and three-way combos of the ‘Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme’ codes utilizing the Jaccard index. Similar to the novelty measure used in a and b, within the Jaccard index a decrease value signifies higher novelty; we therefore convert it into percentiles and subtract from one hundred such that the next score indicates higher novelty.
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